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2020.09.21 19:22 jaredawBusiness to Business Refund After 20 Months
My company is the service provider in this scenario. An old customer from almost 2 years ago has emailed us the other day asking for a refund for a video project we started together in Jan 2019. We're based in Oregon, the client company is in Pennsylvania. To be fair, we dropped the ball and never emailed the client the finished video. That was on us, our systems failed during an event and it just slipped the cracks. Cut and dry, our fault. Client reached out to us, asking for a refund just a week or two ago. We of course immediately sent the finished product over, as we never delete these things. Plus we gave them extra products to attempt to make amends. Still wanted a refund. Offer 2 or 3 other options for further amends. Still wanted a refund. We decide to just do the refund, even though we delivered the video product, albeit grossly late. Thought we should just do it and move on. Note, there was never a promised or stated due date. Here's where it gets complicated, and thus why I'm here. This person who reached out sold the company in August of this year. Yes, the previous owner of the company is trying to get us to refund them for a deal for a company they no longer own. They want us to mail a check to their home in Michigan. They moved out of state after selling their company. So now this company is owned by a new person entirely. I'm not sure what to do. I would think that because we were working with a business, if there is any refund at all, it should be to the client company, not the previous owner of the client company. A second question: is there even a legal requirement at this point to refund this project? I can only find law regarding business to consumer situations. It wasn't even $300, it was 20 months ago, the project was delivered (albeit very late), it's interstate, and our client isn't even under the same ownership any more. To be clear, the previous owner is the one asking for a refund, the current owner has never contacted us. Thanks! If this is a situation I need to contact a local attorney about, just let me know. EDIT: the product in question, the video, is evergreen. It wasn't for a seasonal promotion or something where it is no longer useful after a period of time. The product we delivered is good for 10+ years.
2020.09.17 14:40 MalendoreNeed help with world building in an AI generated story game, centered around The Office.
I sure hope this doesn’t break any rules, but basically there is this game called AI Dungeon. AI Dungeon allows people to play text based adventure games centered around any kind of setting. Very similar to older games where you would type “look east” or “pick up key”. This game however can take any type of input and generate a story around it. The AI isn’t perfect, but there is some potential for some solid story telling. There is a system in this game that allows you to store world info behind the scenes, and essentially flesh out the world with details you want the AI to remember. I have created a rough skeleton of tags that would essentially center the world around season 3 / 4 of The Office. I was hoping that some other fans could help me flesh out the tags that I have here, then when I get all of them in I can share the scenario here! Tags Dunder Mifflin A mid-sized paper company, operates in the eastern United States. Scranton One of the branches of Dunder Mifflin, located in Pennsylvania. Corporate The overseeing body of all the branches of Dunder Mifflin. David Wallace CFO of Dunder Mifflin paper company. David quietly respects Michael Scott for his loyalty to the company, but does not think he can handle any more responsibility. David tolerates Michael's antics Jan Levinson Vice President of Sales at Dunder Mifflin, has a no nonsense leadership style. Oversees Michael Scott, and finds him to be an incompetent employee. Is secretly having a sexual relationship with Michael Scott. Michael Scott Regional manager of Dunder Mifflin, Scranton Branch. Michael tends to overestimate his importance to his employees Despite constantly offending some of his employees, he has a close bond with them. Michael constantly says inappropriate things to his employees. Despite liking the majority of the staff, Michael fiercely hates Human Resources Manager Toby Flenderson. Michael has one-sided affection for Ryan Howard, which often makes Ryan uncomfortable. Michael frequently calls unnecessary conference room meetings that have nothing to do with work. Dwight Schrute Dwight Schrute is assistant to the regional manager of Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Dwight also has the best sales numbers of anyone in the office. Dwight likes to portray himself as an alpha man. Dwight craves authority over his co-workers, and relishes any minor task that Michael or anyone else will give him. Dwight Schrute is easily tricked and pranked by his desk-mate and fellow salesman, Jim Halpert. Dwight has a secret relationship with Angela Martin Dwight Schrute owns a beet farm (Schrute Farms) Dwight is very naive and gullible Jim Halpert Jim is a salesman at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton Branch Jim tries for average work and average effort. Jim is laid back, and does not let the office shenanigans get to him. Jim has a crush on Pam Beasly. Jim constantly pranks his desk-mate Dwight Schrute Pam Beasly Pam is a receptionist at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Pam is engaged to Roy Anderson Pam’s best friend in the office is salesmen Jim Halpert. Pam likes art. Pam’s relationship with Roy Anderson is not emotionally fulfilling. Kelly Kapour Kelly Kapoor is a customer service representative at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Kelly is the office chatterbox, she might discuss, such as boys, dating, and celebrity gossip. Kelly is in love with Ryan Howard Ryan Howard Ryan is a temp at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Ryan is into get rich quick schemes. Ryan acts very condescending to everyone Ryan does not want a committed relationship with Kelly Kapour. Toby Flenderson Toby is the HR representative at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Toby is a mild-mannered, depressed man. Toby tries to avoid office conflict Meredith Palmer Meredith handles supplier relations at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Meredith is an alcoholic Creed Braton Creed works as head of quality assurance at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Creed is an odd man who says nonsensical things. Stanley Hudson Stanley is a paper salesman at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch Stanley is counting down the days until he can retire Stanley does not respect his boss, Michael Scott. Phyllis Vance Phyliss is a saleswoman at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Phyliss is married to Bob Vance of Vance refrigeration company. Phyliss can be nice or petty, depending on her mood. Kevin Malone Kevin is an accountant at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Kevin is a slow talker, and not very bright. Kevin is an expert gambler. Angela Martin Angela is head of accounting at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch Angela Martin is a very cold, no nonsense type person. Angela is having a secret sexual relationship with Dwight Schrute. Angela has many cats and cares for them Angela is very judgemental of her co-workers Andy Bernard Andy is the newest paper salesman at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton Branch. Andy is a trust fund baby, and has never had to work hard for anything. Andy sings a lot of acapella Andy has severe anger management issues. Oscar Martinez Oscar is an accountant at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Oscar is gay, and was outed by his boss Michael Scott Oscar is a know it all. Daryl Philbin Daryl is head of the downstairs warehouse at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch. Daryl has a tense relationship with manager Michael Scott, due to Michael not taking safety seriously. Daryl likes to mess with Michael Scott when Michael asks for advice. Roy Anderson Roy is a warehouse worker at Dunder Mifflin, Scranton branch Roy is engaged to Pam Beasly Roy is not very attentive in his relationship with Pam
2020.09.17 05:47 uasumingskaterBuyer beware for pedalelectric
Ok so this is going to be a long post. I’m going to detail my entire experience and I know lots of people don’t want to read a lot so the TL/DR is don’t deal with pedalelectric, they are scammers. About a month ago I’m looking at the Ariel rider Facebook group pondering the wait for a d-class and I come across a post about this new company selling a dual drive bike and theirs has rear suspension. This has me intrigued so I email the company. I was very direct and asked if they have bikes in stock and when would it ship. ‘Spencer’ answered me and on August 24, he assured me they had bikes in stock and they ship on the same day. I placed an order for a AWD echo. I didn’t get any tracking information that day so I emailed Spencer to ask for tracking. The next day he got back to me and indicated that they had misjudged the cost of shipping. I paid $250 for shipping but it was going to cost them $650 so they were looking for a less expensive shipper but my bike would absolutely go out first thing Wednesday morning. Of course the bike didn’t ship Wednesday morning so when Spencer finally got around to reply to my emails he apologized and assured me the bike would be going out first thing thursday morning. On Thursday, as you know, my bike didn’t get shipped. Spencer didn’t offer any apology thus time though. Instead he incorporated a second character and had someone call me and leave a message claiming the bike was shipped but they don’t have a tracking number because they have to wait for that from the shipping hub. Friday I emailed looking for my tracking number and Spencer told me he would have it at 4:00 (California time) and he would send it to me immediately. Of course that didn’t happen. This is when I decide to protect my own interests and I file a dispute with my credit card carrier. They give me a credit on my account and initiate a chargeback against the merchant. At 5:30 California time Spencer sends me a tracking number. He couldn’t be bothered to send me an actual link so I had to google for the central transit shipping company he used to ship my bike. I didn’t see Spencer’s email till Saturday morning. After seeing the tracking number and finding live terracing information I contacted my credit card company and updated the dispute, letting them know I had a tracking number and the merchant finally shipped something after the dispute was filed. Now the wait, the tracking said I would have it on the 8th of September so about a week. But every day the delivery date was changing. I spoke to a friend that has experience doing professional truck driving about this shipping company and if they are legit. I show my buddy the bill of lading and he explained to me what they did. The shipping method they used is a commercial shipping service known as LTL shipping. That’s Less Than Load shipping. What the trucking company does is basically hobo the palate across the country in whatever trucks are headed East and have a little space. That’s why my bike made it to Arizona and sat for a couple of days, then got to Texas and sat around waiting for a ride till it got to Tennessee then Pennsylvania. Each day the delivery estimate would change and some days it would be as late as the 15th. It ended up taking 2 weeks to make it across the country to Brooklyn. Now this isn’t a residential shipper, it’s a commercial shipping service so they have to schedule an appointment. On sept 11 they called me while I was at work and left a message they would deliver on Saturday and if there was a problem call them and reschedule. I immediately called them back and explained I had to work Saturday and wouldn’t be able to be home so come Monday and I’ll take off in a day that isn’t overtime pay. They said fine and my tracking showed the 14th for delivery. Yeah, you know what happened. They came in Saturday anyway and called me. I told the driver the delivery was supposed to be Monday and he didn’t give me a hard time at all. He just said ok and we got off the phone. Monday comes around and I get up and I’m stalking that tracking number waiting for my delivery that is scheduled for between 9 and 2 on the 14th. Then at around 10:30 in the morning, my tracking changes. It now says delivery tuesday the 15th. I contact them pretty irate that they were pulling this and explain I took off from work for my scheduled delivery and all they could do was insist it wasn’t scheduled for Monday and there was nothing they could do. I don’t drive, I live in Brooklyn. I had to find a friend with a car and it had to be a car big enough to fit this giant box. I mange to do that and get a friend to drive me an hour in each direction to go clear across Brooklyn. The whole day I was emailing Spencer but he never replied. It took 3 weeks but I did it. I had my bike in my apartment and I was about to unbox it. I was absolutely buzzing with excitement as I cut the box open and completed the assembly. I was so excited in fact that it wasn’t till I had everything assembled and I turned it on and hit the throttle and that’s when I realized. This scamming asshole son of a bitch sent me a single drive that is $300 cheaper. Well kick me, I guess he figured out how to get his money back out of that shipping snafu that cost him $500 to send after he only charged me $250 for shipping. I sent ‘Spencer’ an email explaining he has one day to come up with some real good answers. Then I called the credit card company. I explained the bait and switch they pulled and sent the credit card company the full transcript of our 40 or so emails back and forth with this guy. The credit card company gave me a credit as soon as the dispute was filed so I’m not out of pocket for anything as of this moment. They also told me that they did do a chargeback and took the money back. The status of the dispute was still waiting for a reply from the merchant. My credit card company feels the proper solution is to return this bike at the merchants expense and have the merchant ship me the correct bike. Now I know there is a better chance of a unicorn flying through my window than of getting another thousand dollars worth of shipping out of this scammer would I suggested to them that I am willing to pay but only the cost of the lesser model bike that he sent me. So that’s where I am with it at this point. I’m sitting in limbo waiting for this guy to contact my credit card company and ask for his money. I imagine at some point he will do it and I’ll have to see how well my credit card company represents me. In the mean time, I would really suggest to everybody simply avoid this company. In the best case scenario they are incompetent liars but more realistically I believe they are just scammers. Don’t waste tour time or money with them. And for those of you interested in the bike, it’s a pretty generic Chinese scrambler bike. It goes 28mph and I was able to go 24 miles in a single charge with a lot of stopping and taking off plus many hills in the 10% to 15% range. There is no adjustment in the suspension as far as I can tell but it rides fairly well. All in all, it’s certainly nothing special that would justify dealing with such a horrible company. Would NOT buy again and you shouldn’t either. Stick with proven brands.
2020.09.16 18:09 DistantLoungewearQuestions from a business owner - how to proceed
I will try to provide all the details I think are necessary. Please let me know if more info is needed. I am 50% owner of an LLC in the state of Pennsylvania. Our first year of business was 2016, and we started operations in August of that year. At the time, I had a hard time finding an accountant and bookkeeper to take on the account. My background is in finance, so I imported all of our transactions into Quickbooks Online, taught myself what I could, and organized the relatively small number of transactions myself. I also set it up to auto-import all transactions from our bank accounts, credit card, and payment processor going forward. Early in 2017, I found an accountant to file our taxes. Later that year, I found a different accountant and bookkeeper to catch us up for the year, take over the work moving forward, and handle our payroll. I never had any issues with payroll or accounting. but the bookkeeper always seemed to be playing catch up and never asked questions I thought might be relevant until I brought them up (equipment purchases, loans, etc). Last year, I got tired of playing catch up, so I started looking around and ended up signing up with Bench. They've been great so far, and I'm very happy with their service. When they received our Trial Balance, they noticed a Credit balance in our accounts receivable that didn't make sense, and a couple other issues. I contacted the previous bookkeeper, and she pointed out the credit balance was due to an old set of duplicate entries we had discussed when I first hired her (the transactions showed up on both our bank statement, and on imports from our payment processor. We discussed this at the time and I thought she had fixed the issue). She told me it would take a long time to remove the duplicates from QB Online as there were several thousand entries. It's now going on 3 months. I continue to keep our current info up to date with Bench, and check in with the old bookkeeper. But we can't file our taxes or get current, accurate reports from Bench without the Trial Balance. Here's what I'm wondering:
Does several months seems like a reasonable time to fix duplicate entries, especially if you know exactly which transactions they are?
Should I hire some sort of auditor to look over the three years of books before we moved on from the old bookkeeper and make sure everything is correct? I have been meticulous about keeping all the receipts I can, and keeping them well-organized.
Is there anything else you would do if you woke up in my shoes at this moment?
I'd like to let the old bookkeeper finish out the work for the sake of continuity, but the longer this drags on, the more I think I need further outside help. Thank you for your time and advice!
2020.09.13 02:16 AdamSMessingerOpen Mike Eagle 101
YOU GOT SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT MIKE? YOU MIGHT FIND THE ANSWERS HERE! 1.) Q - Who is Open Mike Eagle? A - Open Mike Eagle is a Los Angeles based independent rapper, podcaster, TV funny person, and media philanthropist from Chicago. 2.) Q - Where can I find Open Mike Eagle being himself on the internet? A - Monday through Friday @ some random ass time on his Instragram live broadcasting Quarantine Drive Time Radio and also on all of the following... Mike's official website: http://mikeeagle.net Mike's Patreon - http://patreon.com/openmikeeagle Mike's Twitter - http://twitter.com/mike_eagle Mike's Facebook - http://facebook.com/mikeeagleraps 3.) Q - Where can I find Open Mike Eagle's music? A - You can find and/or purchase his music at the following places.. Mike's Bandcamp page - http://openmikeeagle.bandcamp.com Mello Music Group's Bandcamp for Mike page - http://openmikeeagle360.bandcamp.com (Mello Music Group is a label that Mike has worked with quite a bit in the past, hence why they have a whole Bandcamp page based around their output of his music.) Auto Reverse Records' Bandcamp Page - http://autoreverserecords.bandcamp.com/music (Auto Reverse Records is Mike's very own record label which he now puts his music out under) You can also buy it on iTunes or Amazon and listen to it on many streaming services such as Spotify, Soundcloud, Shazam, Pandora, and YouTube. You can also probably find his vinyls at your local record store. If not, please let the store management know you can't find them and ask them politely to correct it. 4.) Q - Where can I purchase objects that show how much I love Mike? A - Merch Engine is Mike's official store and items can be purchased here. 5.) Q - Where can I listen to Mike's podcasts? A - Mike has his own podcast network, Stoney Island Audio! Find all updates about it on http://twitter.com/stoneyislandpods Currently you can find Mike on What Had Happened Was Season 1 where he interviews the legendary DJ Prince Paul. In the past Mike has hosted Secret Skin, where he interviewed a wide variety of guests, and co-hosted Conversation Parade: An Adventure Time Podcast. Mike's love of professional wrestling led to his participation in the podcast Tights and Fights by providing his point of view of the wrestling product as well as the theme song. Mike has been a guest on a wide variety of podcasts. Chances are that he's probably been a guest at least once in the last 10 years on a podcast you're somewhat familiar with. 6.) Q - What video programming has Mike been on and how can I watch it? A - Most recently (As of September 2020) he co-hosted Call & Response with Baron K. Vaughn where they interview a variety of prominent voices to discuss black culture and issues modern American people of color are faced with. In 2019 Mike was featured in two television series. The New Negros featured Mike and Baron K. Vaughn on hosting duties. Its 8 episode run provided a spotlight for the best of modern black comedians and musicians on Comedy Central. The other series Mike did was entitled Live from WZRD and aired on the VRV streaming service. Mike and his co-host, Dani Fernandez, play students of a local community college for wizards who provide highlights of different activities at the school and interview various celebrities. 7.) Is Mike Eagle on tour right now? A - Mike is touring on the following dates... Open Mike Eagle and Hannibal Buress' "Lets See How This Goes..." Drive-in-Theater Tour 9/22 - Cleveland, Ohio @ Aut-O-Rama Twin Drive In 9/23 - Bulter, Pennsylvania @ Starlight Drive-In 9/24 - Columbus, Ohio @ South Drive-In 9/25 - Indianapolis, Indiana @ Tibbs' Drive-In 9/27 - Chicago, Illinois @ Lakeshore Drive-In (Adler Planatarium Lot) is SOLD OUT Heals, hugs, and the power of glove be with you.
Constitution of the United States The Preamble The Preamble Annotated We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article I Article I Annotated Section 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 2 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. Section 3 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. Section 4 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. Section 5 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Section 6 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. Section 7 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitation prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Section 8 The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; To establish Post Offices and post Roads; To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;–And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. Section 9 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. Section 10 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay. Article II Article II Annotated Section 1 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:– I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. Section 2 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. Section 3 He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. Section 4 The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. Article III Article III Annotated Section 1 The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. Section 2 The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;---to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;---to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;---to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;---to Controversies between two or more States;---between a State and Citizens of another State;---between Citizens of different States,---between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open court. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. Article IV Article IV Annotated Section 1 Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. Section 2 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. Section 3 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. Section 4 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. Article V Article V Annotated The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. Article VI Article VI Annotated All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States. Article VII Article VII Annotated The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. First Amendment First Amendment Annotated Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Second Amendment Second Amendment Annotated A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Third Amendment Third Amendment Annotated No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Fourth Amendment Fourth Amendment Annotated The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Fifth Amendment Fifth Amendment Annotated No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Sixth Amendment Sixth Amendment Annotated In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Seventh Amendment Seventh Amendment Annotated In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Eighth Amendment Eighth Amendment Annotated Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Ninth Amendment Ninth Amendment Annotated The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Tenth Amendment Tenth Amendment Annotated The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. Eleventh Amendment Eleventh Amendment Annotated The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. Twelfth Amendment Twelfth Amendment Annotated The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;–The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;–The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.–]The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. Thirteenth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment Annotated Section 1 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Fourteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Annotated Section 1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2 Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. Section 3 No Person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4 The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Section 5 The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Fifteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Annotated Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude– Section 2 The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Sixteenth Amendment Sixteenth Amendment Annotated The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. Seventeenth Amendment Seventeenth Amendment Annotated The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. Eighteenth Amendment Eighteenth Amendment Annotated Section 1 After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2 The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. Nineteenth Amendment Nineteenth Amendment Annotated Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Twentieth Amendment Twentieth Amendment Annotated Section 1 The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Section 2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Section 3 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. Section 4 The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. Section 5 Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article. Section 6 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. Twenty-First Amendment Twenty-First Amendment Annotated Section 1 The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2 The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Section 3 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. Twenty-Second Amendment Twenty-Second Amendment Annotated
2020.09.10 18:02 SlapmeislapyouI'm creating and writing a YouTube storyline animated series as well as an episodic short animated series and just have some concerns and questions about the terms in the contract drafted by the animator. Contract in post.
[PENNSYLVANIA]I'm ok with everything in the CONTRACT FOR SERVICES AGREEMENT. It's the TERMS AND CONDITIONS USAGE & LICENSING where I get a bit confused. To give the situation a bit more context, my process is this, I've hired one animator to direct the cartoon by way of making the animatic(contract animator), which is basically a black and white sketch in motion. Then I've hired a different animator to color in the cartoon and use the animatic as a reference point for animation timing, scene angles, and character motions. The second animator who is the one coloring in and actually producing the published cartoon will be using his own designs for characters, backgrounds, etc.
Title to all design is maintained by xxxxxxxx(artist) until payment is received. After final payment, exclusive use of all customized design & assets created in this agreement are transferred to xxxxxxxxxxx(me). Usage is limited to web and broadcast, but doesn’t include the right to modify or re-sell designs, characters or animations.
So, since the 1st animator is being hired to make an animatic, and will have nothing to do with the final draft of the cartoon created by the 2nd animator, would the 1st animator have any right to any product I would sell using the 2nd animators artwork? For example if I were to sell clothing or figurines using the 2nd animators artwork, would the 1st animator have any right to profits from that?
Artist also retains all rights to any elements of deliverables that are part of the process and aren’t specifically designed and/or created for Client, including, but not limited to: tools, methodologies, know-how, data or objects, and external documentation associated with the project. However, on payment I grant you a perpetual, irrevocable, limited, non-exclusive, non-transferable, worldwide license, to use in connection with the work or products created under this agreement.
What does this even mean?
Xxxxxxxxxx(artist) will retain the title of Animator should the project be purchased by corporate entities under the direction of xxxxxxxxxxx(me) as series creator for broadcast or web.
Does this mean if I sold or licensed the show, the 1st animator would have right to the proceeds from that? CONTRACT FOR SERVICES AGREEMENT dated 9/8/20 by and between xxxxxxxxxxxxx (hereinafter referred to as “Client”) and xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (hereinafter called "Artist"). 1. Client, requesting the business of 2D Animation Animatics, has commenced work on “Story Cartoon Animatics" (hereinafter called "Project”), and has contracted Artist for the following services in production of said Project, for which services Artist shall be compensated by Client as follows: A. $250.00 per minute of Animatics as a fee encompassing Pre/PropePost production work (Including any animated or non-animated art, writing, storyboarding, revisions, editing). 2. The services listed above embody the entire scope of Artist's work on Client's project, and further services required by Client shall necessitate a new written agreement before commencement of work. 3. As Client is aware, creative work requires an individual to develop their own unique process for accomplishing work goals with the desired results and within the desired timeframe. To this end, Artist has found the following work process best suited to his needs: A. Notes, consultation B. Animatic set to audio (audio provided by Client) C. Editing, exporting 4. As coordination between Artist and Client, and their respective desires for a timely tailor-made product, work on Project will proceed according to the following timeline: A. Pre-Production, Production, Post Production to be reasonably completed as specified by Client B. Hours worked to be specified by Client on needed basis C. Project will be delivered to client in final version after all needed work has been requested by Client 5. Client agrees to adhere to the following fee structure (structure includes services rendered), with payment to Artist due no later than 2 days after receipt of invoice or agreement: A. 50% Total cost up front based on length of audio file provided. B. 50% total cost to be paid upon completion of project. TERMS AND CONDITIONS USAGE & LICENSING: Title to all design is maintained by xxxxxxxx until payment is received. After final payment, exclusive use of all customized design & assets created in this agreement are transferred to xxxxxxxxxxx. Usage is limited to web and broadcast, but doesn’t include the right to modify or re-sell designs, characters or animations. Artist also retains all rights to any elements of deliverables that are part of the process and aren’t specifically designed and/or created for Client, including, but not limited to: tools, methodologies, know-how, data or objects, and external documentation associated with the project. However, on payment I grant you a perpetual, irrevocable, limited, non-exclusive, non-transferable, worldwide license, to use in connection with the work or products created under this agreement. Xxxxxxxxxx will retain the title of Animator should the project be purchased by corporate entities under the direction of xxxxxxxxxxx. as series creator for broadcast or web. COPYRIGHT/LIABILITY: I guarantee, to the best of my integrity, knowledge and belief, that the work I create will not violate the copyright of any other party. Should judgment arise after project completion, I’m not liable for similarities. You guarantee that (a) you own all right, title, and interest in, or otherwise have full right and authority to permit the use of any content provided by you for incorporation into my work product, (b) to the best of your knowledge, your content does not infringe the rights of any third party, and use of your content (as well as any trademarks) in connection with this project does not and will not violate the rights of any third parties, and (c) you will comply with the terms and conditions of any licensing agreements which govern the use of third party materials incorporated into my work product (with your consent). You agree to be responsible for and hold me harmless with this understanding. TERMINATION: Upfront payment is not refundable if project is dissolved during Phase 1. If we dissolve the project after that, I’ll bill for the completed hours up through that date. Payment is due within 2 days. I have the right to put the project on hold and charge interest if payments are past due. Interest charge is 15%. OUT-OF-SCOPE: Prior to commencing any work or additional services that are beyond the scope of this agreement, xxxxxxxx will submit an estimate for the work/service to you, all parties will discuss it, and your written permission will be required before proceeding. PRIVACY & SHARING: You grant me permission to publish any artwork, animation or designs online, in person or in print for purposes of self-promotion(example: reel,portfolio). THIS IS A BINDING DOCUMENT:
2020.09.10 17:10 Dunebug1973Passport application rejected for insufficient identification
My partner sent his passport application off towards the end of October or beginning of November 2019. They sent us a letter saying his application was rejected because of ‘insufficient ID.’ We had sent a certified copy of his birth certificate, copy of his drivers license and two passport compliant photographs. The letter rejecting his application asked for ‘five more forms of identification, five years old or older.‘It’s possible that with some scrambling we could get our hands on one or two of the things listed that are old enough, but certainly not five of them. With the Covid situation happening we then forgot all about it for a while, thinking we can't travel right now anyway, so we'll just let them send his papers back and deal with it at a later date. However, the US is not my native country and with things the way they are here, we have begun to make a 2 year plan to relocate to my country of birth. Obviously the first step is to get him a passport, so we decided to see what what was happening with that and called the number on the rejection letter, explaining the situation regarding the additional forms of ID to them and asked what we should do. They said he could go to a Post Office and file a DS71 form. They explained that this is a form that will be filled out by someone who has known the applicant for two or more years and can verify they are who they say they are. They said he must do this in person, He cannot do this via mail. He made an appointment and went in to do this with a friend who has known him for the requisite amount of time. The employee at the counter told him there is no such form and she didn’t know what he was talking about.After some back and forth she ‘found‘ the form sitting on her desk next to her but insisted she did not know what the form was or what he was talking about and said that she would not file it. He explained the phone call and she just... refused to file the form, remaining insistent that despite having a stack of them at her desk she did not know what it was and they did not offer such a service. To complicate matters further, because of the pandemic everything is backed up in the system of course. His documents should have been returned to him 30 days after we failed to send the additional proof of identification that they asked for.That was obviously almost a year ago, we still haven’t received them back, and he still has an active case number in the system if we call.So I don’t know if starting over and filing a new application for a passport would just make things worse by giving him two active case numbers at the same time. There are no actual passport agencies in the city we live in.The closest is a 3 or 4 hour drive away.The website states they are currently ‘prioritizing appointments for emergency passports’, so I’m not sure we could even go at the moment, but in the event we were able to go in person, that would be quite the round-trip drive to be told, again, that they can’t/won't help him. We just don’t really know what to do, and we have no idea why his application was rejected in the first place.All they would tell us on the phone is that ‘the government reserves the right to ask for additional identification.’ They would not tell us what was insufficient about what was sent. I did some googling and none of the reasons cited for being refused a passport would apply to him. The only things that have occurred to me are: Our state is one of the ones whose ID cards will not be compliant with the new domestic travel guidelines, so they have text on them that reads 'not for Real ID purposes' We can get him a 'Real ID' but the deadline for needing one isn't until October 2021. I did look this up before we sent the original application and read that it would not affect his application. At the time we applied, his ID (drivers license) had an Interlock system restriction on it. He doesn't have this restriction anymore, but again, I did look this up to see if it would cause a problem and read that it would not. We just don't really know what to do from here. Should we persist with doing the rounds at the post offices who deal with passports and hope we can get someone to file this DS71 form? Should we submit a new application with a travel compliant drivers license sans the interlock restriction and cross our fingers that it goes through? Can we call and ask them to cancel his current application so they'll take his case number out of the system? Will it even matter if he has two active case numbers? Any advice on the best way to proceed? Edited to include our location as per bot request: Pennsylvania
2020.09.09 19:21 Whos_Kieslingu/magnifizio - A review
This is a review of my recent experience with u/magnifizio and his service of supplying rare and hard to find ACTUAL Lepin sets. My order was for Lepin 16049 Village Mill Raid and Lepin 16011 Medieval market Village. I will not delve into price of sets or shipping(it was what I was willing to pay and what I thought was fair) and I won't review the sets (plenty of reviews out there). This is just a review of this seller. I went through his site (https://creepyhybrid.easy.co). I was able to you PayPal Goods and Services. I ordered on Friday, August 28. It was late night in Maylasia so obviously he wouldn't see it until Saturday August 29. When he did get the order, he was quick with communication and informed me it would be a day or 2 to get the items ready. He also informed me that Monday August 31 is Independence Day in Maylasia so that would delay shipping. No worries from me and promptly on Tuesday September 1, my order was shipped and I received tracking number. Shipping was done via Aramex which I find to be quick and they hand off to UPS for delivery in the USA. Of course I follow the tracking constantly and saw it was going from Maylasia to Osaka, Japan. About 2 days in I get the new UPS tracking number and when I looked that up it showe a SEVERE WEATHER DELAY on my package. Sure enough, Typhoon Haishen was passing between Maylasia and Japan. Anyway, once passed the package was on the move and went to Alaska, Kentucky and then here to Pennsylvania. I received it yesterday September 8. Package was very well packed and wrapped and arrived in great shape. So to reiterate: August 28 - order (late day) September 1 - shipped September 8 - delivered These dates include a national holiday and Typhonn in between and still this was the fastest I have ever received a package of alternative bricks. In conclusion, if u/magnifizio has a hard to find Actual Lepin set you want, go for it. You won't be disappointed! I highly recommend!
2020.09.09 00:25 rayef3rwA Brief Look at How Covid-19 Impacts Current Annual Consecutive Game Streaks
I think the fact that this season will be a college football season like no other goes without saying. This year is a patchwork quilt of teams that are or aren't playing this fall (or something in-between), with many more games likely to be postponed or canceled due to ongoing Covid-19-related fallout. Perhaps the only close comparison is the 1918 season, where the closing months of WWI sidelined many of the teams that had traditionally played college football, and the Spanish Flu sidelined the rest for varying periods of time. Looking back through the history of college football, the World Wars (US involvement during 1917-1918 and 1941-1945) have been the two primary disruptors of the traditional yearly meetings between college football teams. I'll do a little more analysis later on in the post, but the vast majority of the existing consecutive game streaks in college football date to post-WWII, with only 27 currently-surviving consecutive match-ups dating to before 1941. With that introduction, let's take a look at the longest-surviving uninterrupted match-ups in college football and which ones will be impacted this fall. As a quick aside, this of course all depends on how these records get counted going forward and whether a Spring 2020 season (if/when it happens) will be fully counted as the "2020" season, so I'll just add the caveat that these are uninterrupted fall meetings for now -- and assume that applies throughout. Let me also preface this list by saying that while I tried to include all of the smaller FCS/DII conferences, I would be shocked if I didn't miss a few. If you notice any uninterrupted rivalry games missing from this list, please! -- let me know!
*Game currently postponed So, what does this all mean? I won't do a full re-hash of the chart, but I'll do some highlights and summaries of the important sections below. As a side note, I kind of arbitrarily chose to end in 1972, but it has some justification that I'll get to later on. Really, though, it was mostly just because I felt like that was a decent stopping point.
Most Common Causes of Breaks Before Covid
So, what was the primary reason that most these consecutive game streaks last came to an end? And will it be beaten out by Covid, assuming Spring 2020 doesn't count/doesn't happen? I didn't do a fully exhaustive search (partly because some stuff was hard to find and partly because I got tired of looking, if we're being honest), but World War II ended the bulk of the streaks on this list, adding up to about 40 of the matches. The other factors aren't particularly close to matching that total, though World War I is probably the next closest, aside from generic scheduling conflicts/choosing not to schedule each other, with about 5 stoppages. Other common factors included:
Wake Forest ended her 1909 football season prematurely the day before her scheduled match-up against NC State (then known as NC A&M), citing "the crippled conditions" of her players. Had it not been for that cancellation, the NC State-Wake Forest rivalry would, at the end of this season, be the longest-running uninterrupted match-up in college football, running 113 years instead of 110 (111 at the end of this year) as present (source).
The two teams played in 1929 and 1930, but took a break from 1931-1935. Though Wikipedia says the teams took a break so that UCLA could "established itself," the historical record says the teams actually took a break for a much more petty reason: "When Southern California found dates other than the opening game of the season closed in 1931, after the Bruin athletic officials had asked to play later in the year, relations on the gridiron were severed." In short, pettiness was part of the reason the two teams didn't meet for 5 years (source).
Not to feature my own team too much here, but this series extends back to only 1953 because of some historical complications: a UNC football player contracted polio just before the 1952 match-up, forcing UNC to cancel her NC State game and a match-up against Georgia. Had it not been for this, the series would extend back to 1947 (source).
The teams and conferences that suffer the most from this are exactly who you'd expect it to be. The Ivy League, Big Ten, and Pac-12 are losing the most uninterrupted games, though the Patriot League, the SWAC, and the MAC are also losing some notable matches By far the most notable game that will not be played this fall will be the LafayetteLafayette LehighLehigh match-up; it will be the first time in 123 years that the game won't be played in the fall. It was last forgone in 1896 due to a dispute over player eligibility; had it not been for that break in relations, The Rivalry would have dated back wholly uninterrupted to the two teams' first meeting in 1884, which would have been good for 136 consecutive years of playing. The next oldest game not to be played this fall is the MinnesotaMinnesota WisconsinWisconsin game, followed by the ClemsonClemson South CarolinaSouth Carolina game, which has been played continuously since 1909, meaning the 2020 season will be the end of 3 of the longest-running continuous series in all of college football. Finally, one game I hate to see go is the MorehouseMorehouse TuskegeeTuskegee match, which had previously been played continuously since 1936. I couldn't find a lot about the history of this series online very easily, but it's the longest-running HBCU match I could find. Several other historic HBCU rivalries ended temporarily fairly recently owing to the disbanding of Prairie View A&MPrairie View A&M for the 1990 football season.
Previously Unbroken Series
Unfortunately, Covid is putting an end to a few series which have previously met every year without interruption. Those matches include:
You've got to give a lot of credit to any ADs who managed to keep non-conference rivalry games going through all this. The only consecutive non-conference rivalry games that will survive undamaged are those belonging to three major service academies. Unfortunately, the Merchant MarinesMerchant Marine and the Coast GuardCoast Guard were not so fortunate, and have canceled their fall season. The ArmyArmy, NavyNavy, and Air ForceAir Force managed to keep afloat their rivalries which have been played continuously since 1971/72 for the Air Force and since 1930 for the Army and Navy. This was possible only by the work of the Air Force, who, as of right now, will be playing only Army and Navy this fall, though the Mountain West Conference did recently announce a revised schedule which allows for 2 non-conference games, so this could change. Both ArmyArmy and NavyNavy are currently playing full schedules. This was really the main reason I stopped making my list in 1972. That, and it lets me talk about the Textile Bowl (NC State vs Clemson). I'll discuss that in the following section.
Games Unlikely to Be Rescheduled
Though most of these games are intra-conference games that can be rescheduled in the Spring fairly easily, there are a few notable games that will almost certainly not be. Many of these games include teams who will both be playing this season, but will be playing in different conferences or unable to meet for other reasons. These games include:
This game was canceled after Notre Dame elected to join the ACC for the 2020 season. ACC teams can only play non-conference games if they are played in their home state, and while the teams could have agreed to play at Notre Dame, some speculate that a combination of NBC's contract to televise the game and future home/away agreements prevented that from happening.
While Covid has technically impacted their seasons and I've included it on this list, the match between these two members of the Mountain West Conference is really likely to end after this season for an unrelated reason: Colorado State has indefinitely suspended football until their investigation into racism in the program is complete. Will that be done by Spring? I have my doubts.
Also known as the Textile Bowl, these two teams have faced each other every year since 1971. While I know a lot of Wolfpack fans in particular aren't sad to be losing the game for the year, I'm a bit disappointed by the break in meetings between our two schools. A final tidbit about this game, this is the only consecutive intra-conference game between two members of the same conference (and the same division, to boot) on my list which won't being played this Fall (aside from Colorado State-Wyoming).
Non-Conference Games Which Can (Probably) Be Rescheduled
While Conference games are possible to be scheduled fairly easily, there are a few non-conference games which will probably be resumed this Spring.
Though members of differing conferences (the Patriot League and the Ivy League, respectively), since both conferences canceled their seasons, the scheduling for this game should be possible, albeit slightly more complicated than usual.
Since the Aggies are an FBS Independent who has chosen to suspend their Fall 2020 football season, and the Lobos are a member of the Mountain West Conference, who has as a conference-wide suspension of athletic activities due to Covid, it is possible for this game to be rescheduled if New Mexico State agrees to be 1 of New Mexico's 2 allowed non-conference games this Fall.
Though both are members of the Missouri Valley Conference, I've chosen to include this match-up here since NDSU has chosen to play football this Fall while the Jackrabbits have chosen not to, since the Bison are only playing one game this fall. That leaves a good argument for these two teams to reunite this Spring, if they so choose.
To answer that question I posed earlier (will Covid potentially impact more currently-consecutive football meetings than World War II), the answer is yes. While this is a bit disingenuous to say, since many otherwise-consecutive rivalry games impacted by World War II have stopped playing since the war for other reasons (looking at you, 2010-14 Conference Realignment), Covid will impact 66 otherwise-uninterrupted matches, while 32 will continue on. Of those 66 canceled matches, though, only the 9 listed above (under the are Unlikely to Be Rescheduled section) are, in my view, highly unlikely to be revived in the Spring, while the rest can continue on in the Spring if scheduling and Corona allow. 1 - I would like to find a more concise and formal source, but so far one has evaded me 2 - Several Minnesota-based athletic pages say that the cause was Teddy Roosevelt banning rivalry games in 1906; despite that, the only period explanation I've found for the break in the games was a June 1906 article about a ChicagoChicago MinnesotaMinnesota game scheduled for 1907, which said the 1906 match-up was prevented because "The big nine conference [Big 10 today], in forbidding games which established a western championship, did so on the ground that it brought about an unhealthy rivalry and stirred up improper spirit between the big educational institutions." Though the Big 9 could have chosen to do that because of threats by Roosevelt, the immediate cause was the conference's decision. 3 - Some sources disagree on this: At the time of their first athletic break, then-AD at BGSU said "Frankly, Toledo is too tough for us in football. We feel that we can no longer compete on even terms." However, there have also been references to players having "more trouble avoiding flying fists than avoiding blockers and tacklers" before the series was temporarily canceled as well. For a good write-up of the series, see here Thanks to u/bullmoose_atx, u/bwburke94, u/drgnlis, and u/Graduation2017 for the corrections so far
2020.09.07 15:39 rusticgorillaLost in the Sauce: DHS hides intelligence that reveals Trump using Russia's playbook, again
Welcome to Lost in the Sauce, keeping you caught up on political and legal news that often gets buried in distractions and theater… or a global health crisis. Housekeeping:
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Trump’s playbook is Russia’s playbook
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in July withheld an intelligence bulletin warning of a Russian plot to spread misinformation regarding Joe Biden's mental health. The bulletin, titled “Russia Likely to Denigrate Health of U.S. Candidates to Influence 2020 Election,” was blocked by the office of acting DHS Secretary Chad Wolf on July 9.
The bulletin states that analysts had “high confidence” in their conclusion. However, a DHS spokesperson tried to defend the “delay” in issuing the document by saying it did not meet the agency’s standards. This is curious because just a week later, on July 16, DHS circulated a bulletin on anarchists in Portland that officers admitted they had “low confidence” in. Why was the Russia memo held back but the Portland one released?
Trump has been pushing the same line of attack against Biden for months - yet another instance of Russia and Trump operating from the same playbook. For instance, in March Trump said there was “something going on” with Biden; in June Trump ran selectively edited ads asserting that Biden is “unfit to serve as Commander in Chief”; last month Trump ran a digital ad portraying Biden as perpetually confused and mentally unstable. Most recently, Trump said questions about his own health are only in the news because “they want to try and get me to be on Biden's physical level."
DHS is just the latest agency in the Trump administration to erode election security, following actions by the Justice Department and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) last month. DNI John Ratcliffe announced he was ending in-person congressional briefings on election security ahead of November and AG Bill Barr removed a leading career official at the Justice Department’s national security division, replacing him with an inexperienced political appointee. The ODNI’s decision to halt congressional election briefs may have been influenced by top White House officials. National Security Adviser Robert O’Brien and Chief of Staff Mark Meadows, among others, have repeatedly discussed in meetings with staff and with Trump “how to restrict and control the flow of information on such sensitive topics to Capitol Hill.”
One White House official told The Daily Beast that Meadows has for months been wary of the type of briefings on Capitol Hill that Democratic sources can potentially use to try to make Trump look bad through surreptitious leaks to media outlets.
Meanwhile, interim Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee Marco Rubio (R-FL) said last week that his committee will be granted an exception to the ODNI’s new policy and continue to receive in-person briefings from top U.S. intelligence officials about election-security issues. This essentially means that only Democrat-led committees have been cut out of the process ensuring election security. House Democrats wrote to Ratcliffe insinuating if his office does not provide the previously scheduled briefings this month they will issue subpoenas and/or defund the ODNI in the appropriations bill due by the end of the month. Read the letter here. In addition to attacks on Biden’s health, DHS has determined that Russia is seeking to “amplify” concerns over the integrity of U.S. elections by promoting allegations that mail-in voting will lead to widespread fraud. Intelligence analysts say this strategy has been underway since at least March, coinciding with Trump’s own assaults on mail-in voting.
For instance, in March Trump said if he agreed to funding vote-by-mail expansions in the first coronavirus stimulus bill, the U.S. would see “levels of voting that, if you ever agreed to it, you’d never have a Republican elected in this country again” (clip). Fact check: Neither party has historically benefited. On April 7, at the White House press briefing, Trump claimed: "Mail ballots are a very dangerous thing for this country, because they're cheaters… They're fraudulent in many cases" (clip). Fact check: There is no evidence that mail ballots are dangerous or fraudulent.
At a White House press briefing on Friday, Trump denied there is any proof that Russia poisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny. Instead of backing the German government's analysis of Nalvany's illness, Trump then redirected the criticism from Russia to China (clip).
"I don't know exactly what happened. I think it's tragic. It's terrible; it shouldn't happen. We haven't had any proof yet, but I will take a look. It is interesting that everybody is always mentioning Russia - and I don't mind you mentioning Russia - but I think probably China, at this point, is a nation that you should be talking about much more so than Russia. Because the things that China's doing are far worse.”
Trump then went on to say he’s “taken stronger action against Russia than any other country in the world,” but added “I do get along with President Putin” (clip).
RELATED: Leaked notes obtained by the Telegraph say that when Theresa May asked for Trump to take a strong stand after Russia poisoned Sergei Skripal, Trump replied “I’d rather follow than lead.” He pushed May to “put together a coalition” first.
The Trump administration plans to deport a Russian national living in America, a move experts say is in response to a politically motivated request by Russia. Gregory Duralev was persecuted by the Russian state for exposing corruption. He fled to America and applied for asylum in 2015. While waiting for a decision on his application, he was arrested by ICE and jailed for nearly 18 months. His case is now in court.
“DHS has acted no better than the Russian authorities,” Duralev said. “They simply fabricated charges against me for violations I never committed — and if DHS can trump up charges against immigrants with impunity, nobody can guarantee they won’t start doing it” to regular Americans. “So that’s the main message I now hope to send.”
Michael Cohen & Peter Strzok
Former FBI agent Peter Strzok has a book coming out called “Compromised.” In it, he alleges that FBI investigators came to believe it was “conceivable, if unlikely” that Russia was secretly controlling President Trump after he took office:
“We certainly had evidence that this was the case: that Trump, while gleefully wreaking havoc on America’s political institutions and norms, was pulling his punches when it came to our historic adversary, Russia,” Strzok writes. “Given what we knew or had cause to suspect about Trump’s compromising behavior in the weeks, months, and years leading up to the election, moreover, it also seemed conceivable, if unlikely, that Moscow had indeed pulled off the most stunning intelligence achievement in human history: secretly controlling the president of the United States — a Manchurian candidate elected.”
He now says he doesn’t believe that Trump is literally a Russian spy: “I don’t think that Trump, when he meets with Putin, receives a task list for the next quarter,” Strzok said, referencing the Russian president, Vladimir Putin. “But I do think the president is compromised, that he is unable to put the interests of our nation first, that he acts from hidden motives, because there is leverage over him, held specifically by the Russians but potentially others as well.” In an interview with Politico, Strzok confirms that he and then-deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe, opened a counterintelligence case on the president, but that it likely was never pursued. Two weeks ago, NYT reported that Rosenstein secretly closed it. As if there weren’t enough political books coming out this summefall, Michael Cohen is releasing his, called “Disloyal: A Memoir.” The following a couple of quick takeaways: Cohen says that he, Trump, Aras Agalarov, Emin Agalarov, and others, watched a strip show in Las Vegas where one performer simulated peeing on another performer, who pretended to drink it. Trump reportedly reacted with “delight.” Aras Agalarov, a Russian real estate mogul, is a trusted associate of Putin and reportedly served as a liaison between Trump and the Russian president during Trump’s trip to Moscow. WaPo:
On Russia, Cohen writes that the cause behind Trump’s admiration of Russian President Vladimir Putin is simpler than many of his critics assume. Above all, he writes, Trump loves money — and he wrongly identified Putin as “the richest man in the world by a multiple.” Trump loved Putin, Cohen wrote, because the Russian leader had the ability “to take over an entire nation and run it like it was his personal company — like the Trump Organization, in fact.” ...According to Cohen, Trump’s sycophantic praise of the Russian leader during the 2016 campaign began as a way to suck up and ensure access to the oligarch’s money after he lost the election. But he claims Trump came to understand that Putin’s hatred of Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, dating to her support for the 2011 protest movement in Russia, could also help Trump amass more power in the United States.
USPS & mail voting
According to a Washington Post report yesterday, Postmaster Louis DeJoy engaged in campaign money laundering, also called a straw-donor scheme, at his former logistics business. Five of his former employees told WaPo that they were “urged” to donate to politicians in North Carolina and would be paid back through bonuses from DeJoy. Such a plan would allow DeJoy to illegally circumvent campaign donation limits.
“Louis was a national fundraiser for the Republican Party. He asked employees for money. We gave him the money, and then he reciprocated by giving us big bonuses,” said David Young, DeJoy’s longtime director of human resources, who had access to payroll records at New Breed from the late 1990s to 2013 and is now retired. “He would ask employees to make contributions at the same time that he would say, ‘I’ll get it back to you down the road,’ ” said [another] former employee. ...A Washington Post analysis of federal and state campaign finance records found a pattern of extensive donations by New Breed employees to Republican candidates, with the same amount often given by multiple people on the same day. Between 2000 and 2014, 124 individuals who worked for the company together gave more than $1 million to federal and state GOP candidates. Many had not previously made political donations, and have not made any since leaving the company, public records show.
More than one million mail-in ballots were sent late to voters during the 2020 primary elections, an audit by the USPS IG’s office determined. Most of the ballots were late, the USPS says, because local election boards sent the ballots to voters at the last minute. Official press release.
[The audit] found the problems during primaries had been most pronounced in Kentucky and New York, where a combined 628,000 ballots were sent out late. In 17 states, the audit found, more than 589,000 ballots were sent from election boards to voters after the state’s ballot mailing deadline. In 11 states, more than 44,000 ballots were sent from election boards to voters the day of or the day before the state’s primary election. One particularly troubling situation, auditors found, unfolded in Pennsylvania, where 500 ballots were sent to voters the day after the election.
Furthermore, only 13% of the ballots were mailed with the recommended bar code tracking technology. Florida Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D) was blocked from attending two scheduled tours of USPS facilities last week. Local Postal Service officials informed her and union leaders waiting to accompany her into the building that national USPS leadership had directed them to bar the group from the building. A Postal Service spokeswoman said they simply needed more notice for a tour. Many states, including important battleground states, are not legally permitted to process mail-in/absentee ballots until Election Day, leading to concern that results will be delayed by days or weeks. For instance, in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan election officials cannot even begin processing ballots until Election Day. Processing involves opening envelopes, flattening ballots to run through the scanning machine, and prepping for the scanning.
"When voters have to wait so long for results, it erodes trust in the process and leaves room for partisan bad actors to dispute the will of the people," said Amber McReynolds, CEO of the National Vote at Home Institute, a nonprofit organization.
AG Bill Barr made three stunning false claims about mail voting during an interview with Wolf Blitzer last week. First, Barr wouldn’t even acknowledge that voting twice is a crime - because just hours earlier, Trump encouraged his North Carolina supporters to vote twice to “test” the state’s mail-in voting system (clip).
BLITZER: It sounds like he’s encouraging people to break the law and try to vote twice. BARR: It seems to me what he’s saying is, he’s trying to make the point that the ability to monitor this system is not good. And it was so good, if you tried to vote a second time you would be caught if you voted in person. BLITZER: That would be illegal if they did that. If somebody mailed in a ballot and then actually showed up to vote in person, that would be illegal. BARR: "I don't know what the law in the particular state says.” BLITZER: You can’t vote twice. BARR: "I don't know what the law in the particular state says.”
Then, Barr tried to assert that foreign countries could fake ballots, but when challenged he admitted he had no evidence (clip).
BLITZER: You’ve said you were worried that a foreign country could send thousands of fake ballots, thousands of fake ballots to people that it might be impossible to detect. What are you basing that on? BARR: I’m basing — as I’ve said repeatedly, I’m basing that on logic. BLITZER: Pardon? BARR: Logic.
Finally, Barr cited a supposed incident of mail-in voting fraud in Texas. Too bad it doesn’t exist.
Charles Rettig, the Trump-appointed IRS Commissioner who has refused to release President Trump’s tax returns, has made hundreds of thousands of dollars renting out Trump properties while in office. Rettig makes $100,000 - $200,000 a year from two units at Trump International Waikiki. When first nominated, Rettig failed to disclose his financial ties to Trump Waikiki. When questioned by Congress, he did not directly answer concerns about the properties.
CREW: With Trump’s name removed from some buildings as it began to hurt property values, we can only imagine how toxic it would become if a bombshell in his tax returns were released. Which means the IRS Commissioner has a vested interest in the success of the Trump brand—and of preventing anything that could damage it.
Voice of America staffers say Trump appointee Michael Pack is threatening to wash away legal protections intended to insulate their news reports from political meddling. Since arriving, Pack has fired the network's leaders, pushed out agency executives, refused to approve allotted budgets, and refused to renew visas for foreign employees.
Further reading: “Deleted Biden video sets off a crisis at Voice of America,” Politico.
Pack suggested the staff he fired and foreign journalists he essentially kicked out may have been foreign spies, without offering any evidence to support his claim. A group of 14 senior VOA journalists are openly disputing his explanation:
“Mr. Pack has made a thin excuse that his actions are meant to protect national security, but just as was the case with the McCarthy ‘Red Scare,’ which targeted VOA and other government organizations in the mid-1950s, there has not been a single demonstrable case of any individual working for VOA — as the USAGM CEO puts it — ‘posing as a spy,’ ” they wrote.
The White House is searching for a replacement for Federal Trade Commission Chair Joe Simons, a Republican who has publicly resisted President Donald Trump’s efforts to crack down on social media companies. Simons, a veteran antitrust lawyer, cannot legally be removed by the president except in cases of gross negligence. But the White House has already interviewed at least one candidate for the post.
RELATED: The Justice Department plans to bring an antitrust case against Google as soon as this month, after Attorney General William P. Barr overruled career lawyers who said they needed more time to build a strong case.
Richard Grenell, formerly the highest-ranking out gay official in the Trump administration, has joined a law firm founded by Pat Robertson that has a history of opposing LGBTQ+ rights. Grenell also recently joined the Republican National Committee to do outreach to LGBTQ+ voters. The Trump administration has quietly named a new acting State Department inspector general. Matthew Klimow, the U.S. ambassador to Turkmenistan since mid-2019, is the third acting IG since Trump and Pompeo ousted Senate-confirmed IG Steve Linick in May. Mick Mulvaney, Trump’s current special envoy to Northern Ireland, former Chief of Staff, and former acting head of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, is starting a hedge fund focused on financial services regulation. Ethics experts say Mulvaney explicitly using his knowledge of CFPB to place bets for and against companies gives him an unfair and perhaps illegal advantage.
Court and DOJ matters
Court cases The Trump administration must, for now, stop winding down in-person counting efforts for the 2020 census, a federal judge in California ordered. The three-judge panel hearing a challenge to Trump’s new anti-immigrant census policy seemed hostile to the government’s arguments in a hearing last week. A federal judge has stopped the Trump administration from enforcing a rule change that would let health care providers deny medical services to LGBTQ patients on the grounds of religion. Justice Department Federal prosecutors are preparing to charge longtime GOP fundraiser Elliott Broidy in connection with efforts to influence the U.S. government on behalf of foreign interests. Broidy helped raise millions for Donald Trump’s election and the Republican Party. Barr ordered another round of changes to FISA rules, tightening the use of government surveillance on political candidates or their staffers — a move conservatives will likely cheer, as they have long criticized how the FBI investigated the Trump campaign in 2016.
Before conducting physical searches or wiretaps of a federal election official, members of the official's staff, candidates for federal office, or their staff or advisers, the FBI must now consider giving them a "defensive briefing," to tell them that they could be the target of foreign influence.
2020.09.04 09:37 AdityaHumadAditya Humad- CO-Founder And CFO At KICVentures
https://preview.redd.it/dcvp78nx33l51.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b6c0d680643e9dd6cd91909871aecf9ecf2c9107 Aditya Humad experienced childhood in India and the Middle East. He moved on from the University of Pennsylvania at the Wharton School of Business and the School of Engineering. Aditya Humad met Dr. Kingsley R. Jawline in 2003. His business experience began with J.P.Morgan on Wall Street in New York as a medical services speculation analyst. where he zeroed in on medical services M&A, capital raise, and rebuilding exchanges before joining KICVentures in 2009. Aditya has shut different M&A bargains for KICVentures, most as of late AxioMed and NanoFUSE Biologics. He acquired centered money related oversight bringing over $30M up in value and obligation capital for KICVentures. Aditya Humad has a Bachelor’s in both Bioengineering and Finance from the University of Pennsylvania and Wharton School of Business as a component of the esteemed Jerome Fisher Management and Technology Program. Aditya Humad joined KICVentures in 2009 after his experience on Wall Street as a venture broker. With an underlying spotlight on Spinefrontier, Inc, he drove the organization to accomplish benefit inside his initial two years, while developing it every year at 30%. He thusly began a few organizations at KICVentures that have created over $100 M in incomes to date. Aditya Humad fills in as a senior leader inside the portfolio organizations, giving vital bearing and hands-on operational execution. He has driven various exchanges for the portfolio organizations and has raised capital from people and institutional loan specialists. Working couple with Dr. The jaw for over ten years, he has constantly fabricated business openings in the clinical gadget and medical care administration enterprises. Before KICVentures, Aditya dealt with Wall Street at J.P. Morgan as a speculation investor where he zeroed in on mergers and acquisitions, financing, and rebuilding. He likewise propelled effective generous enterprising tasks in South Africa. Aditya has a Bachelor’s in both Bioengineering and Finance from the University of Pennsylvania and Wharton School of Business as a major aspect of the esteemed Jerome Fisher Management and Technology Program. View Profile At- Aditya Humad
2020.09.02 18:29 SaucyBossBebeRepublican Senate's response to my letter in regards to the USPS
August 29, 2020 Dear SaucyBossBebe, Thank you for contacting me about the United States Postal Service (USPS). I appreciate hearing from you. The financial condition of the USPS has been deteriorating for over a decade before the COVID-19 pandemic. The USPS has reported net losses for thirteen years in a row, having lost $78 billion during that span. According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), the USPS has missed nearly $50 billion in required payments for retiree health and pension benefits. Its unfunded liabilities and debt are approximately $160 billion. If the USPS fails to make any more payments, the retiree health benefits fund will be depleted within a decade, according to the Office of Personnel Management. Furthermore, USPS's expenses continue to grow faster than its revenues due in part to rising compensation and benefit costs and a continuing decline in the volume of First-Class Mail. Of note, the USPS has been an independent executive agency for the last 50 years and does not rely on or receive federal funding to maintain operations although it can "borrow" from the taxpayer (and has borrowed more than $10 billion to cover debts in the last decade). Rather, the USPS is a self-sustaining, business-like entity that derives its revenues from the sale of postage and postal products and services. Despite serious, underlying financial issues, the USPS is not going to run out of money this year. From March 16 to present, USPS revenues were actually $1.3 billion higher than during the same period last year, and the USPS has $15 billion in "cash on hand" - an all-time high. Despite its status as an independent entity experiencing modest revenue growth, House Democrats want taxpayers to give $25 billion to the USPS. Others are suggesting a $10 billion loan, which was authorized by the recently-enacted Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, should be entirely forgiven. While the USPS has sufficient funds to cover normal operations and deliver an influx of election mail, a dated business model and billions in unfunded liabilities and debt pose a threat to the USPS's long-term sustainability. In December 2018, the Treasury Department released a report from the Task Force on the United States Postal System. The report, available at https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm566n, contains various policy recommendations that can help return the USPS to a sustainable financial path. Additionally, it contains an extensive list of USPS employee organizations and mailing industry trade associations that provided input to the Task Force. The report, as well as nearly a decade of GAO recommendations, makes clear that administrative and legislative reforms are necessary to create a more sustainable business model. In recent weeks, some politicians and media figures have peddled conspiracy theories about actions taken by the USPS to save money. These persons cite sensible reforms like having mail carriers make only a single delivery run each day (as opposed to multiple runs in the same neighborhood) in order to reduce overtime expenses and removing underused postal boxes (even though 12,000 collection boxes were removed during the Obama administration according to the USPS Inspector General). Given the blowback resulting from misinformation, on August 18, 2020, Postmaster General Louis DeJoy announced that the USPS would be suspending all reforms until after this fall's election and stated that "the Postal Service is ready to handle whatever volume of election mail it receives this fall." You may read the full statement here: https://about.usps.com/newsroom/national-releases/2020/0818-postmaster-general-louis-dejoy-statement.htm. For further context, even if every voter who participated in the 2016 election voted by absentee ballot this year, that would still amount to less mail than the average amount delivered by the USPS - 400 million - each day. Given the problems in several 2020 primaries with voting-by-mail, concerns about election integrity have far more to do with unrealistic state balloting deadlines, overwhelmed local election offices, and sending ballots universally to people who don't request them (as California and other states plan to do). I recognize that the Postal Service provides several important services to Americans, especially in rural areas. Postal service workers have only seen their responsibilities grow in recent months due to the COVID-19 crisis and with more people voting by mail. While it is likely that the next COVID-19 bill will give more financial assistance to the Postal Service, efforts to preserve the USPS must be done in a fiscally responsible way that does not shift costs to taxpayers. Although I am not a member of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, which has jurisdiction over issues pertaining to the USPS, please be assured that I will have your thoughts in mind should Congress consider making any legislative reforms or providing further financial assistance to the USPS. Thank you again for your correspondence. Do not hesitate to contact me in the future if I can be of assistance. Sincerely, Pat Toomey U.S. Senator, Pennsylvania EDIT: paragraphs as requested by u/VoteAndrewYang2024
2020.09.01 20:19 tbarnett19124Carvana doesn't care
So I had problems with CARVANA from day one. I purchased a 2015 kia optima. Car delayed $250 back. The reason for using CARVANA was because my car was totaled on Mothers day the man had eye problems hit two cars. In the middle of a pandemic. So I paid out of pocket $1170.00 for a rental. I had to get out of this situation and thought since most car dealers where closed this would be a new convent way to Go! NOPE FIRST of all you always get different people.with different personalities. But the same script! My car was delayed and I received $250. Only put a dent into the $1170.00 cost of the rental! Then they said bring your family to experience the vending. They drove it out to me and gave me the coin for a Souvenir. Disappointing I did a quick check and the eyeglass compartment doesn't work they assured me it would be repaired. Never happened. Once I realized I had to pay so much for the rental I reviewed the contract and decided I did not want the Carvana care package that cost $1495.00 because I could not afford it any longer. Plus, I realized that I had a manufacturer warranty left. So I proceeded to cancel. The customer service rep said " I apologize the manufacturer warranty ran out today" I say the contract does not states that. He said I should keep the CARVANA CARE. BUT I could not afford it. I REACHED OUT KIA AND THEY SAID THE WARRANTY RAN OUT IN MAY!! That was on the 14th of July. Carvana told me the only way to get out of Carvana care was to talk to the third party vendor Silver rock (I think thats the name) I said since I don't have a signed contract with them its only a matter of them rewriting the new contract and leaving Carvana care out. They then told me I had already purchased my car and I said my lender told me I still have time to go somewhere else. All you have is an invoice!. After all of the calls and arguing I finally received a call stating they will send me new documents to sign. That was on July 28, after speaking with someone from Carvana I decided to sign the documents because I WAS DEPERATE FOR A CAR! don't forget were in a pandemic! So here it is August 28th my temporary registration had expired. I have been calling them two weeks up until the expiration and they keep saying the DMV IS BACKED UP, my registration is from GEORGIA. SO I called them and they said call Pennsylvania, I called them and they said whats the order number. I called Carvana and they said they can't give it to me because they use a third party.🤦🏾♀️🤦♂️ I can't drive my car I called to opt out of the arbitration agreement and they said its been over 30 days so I can't which they thought meant I can't take legal action because they dated my purchase for JULY when they had no fully signed contract with me nor my lender. Plus the contract I signed still states that I have a manufacturer warranty which breaches the contract. Technically I signed my contract on July 28th. ( Have proof) ! They also told me to have my car towed to have repairs done. WHO WANTS TO DO THAT! I paid my first car note and cannot drive my vehicle. Today the atm is Sept 10 and then they will send me a tracking number! My birthday is on the 3rd and I have no car! Even though I'm paying for it! I have been doing nothing but crying ocer this mess! update: Just received my tags in FedEx! Then a call stating "I HAVE GOOD NEWS FOR YOU!" WE HAVE SENT YOUR PLATE!. I politely said to her....Thank you for your customer service, however its like the electric company telling you "even though you have been paying your bill for 2 months, we are finally going to turn on your electricity you should be Happy!
2020.08.30 00:21 SnooPickles1708Elderly parents taken advantage of by contractor
Hi, hope you can all help. This is in Pennsylvania. My elderly parents needed repairs to their porch roof. The company they called came out and gave a price of $1500.00 for the roof and to cap the wood trim under the porch. An estimate was sent by email on May 10, 2020. The estimate included an additional $1000.00 for the optional front fascia, for a total of 2500. 1500 for repairs, 1000 for the extra stuff They did not want to pay the extra 1000 for the front fascia, and left scotch taped to their front door a signed agreement for $1500.00, for two weeks for the roofer to come and pick up the signed and dated agreement. He never came to pick up the signed estimate, although he said he would. They never signed an agreement for the additional $1000.00. They then sent an email stating they only wanted the work for the $1500.00, not including the extra front fascia for the additional 1000. The other day they received a phone call saying the roofers were coming the next day (August 27, 2020). They did arrive and started work. The roofer never talked to my parents but they did askthe owner how long the work would take. He said all day. The work was done sloppy and patched with rough edges and there was a leak that spilled directly over the front door. My father had to caulk the spot where the water was leaking into the porch ceiling. The ends are not completed correctly and the slope on the porch ceiling should not be flat. Additionally, they added the extra 1000 front fascia that they never agreed to. When the workers left for the day, it rained, and the water poured through the porch. They called the roofer who came out and said the job is fine. My father said, "But why is this front fascia done? We never agreed to this additional work." the roofer claimed that they HAD agreed to it - but he has no signed contract AND my parents sent him an email in advance that says they did not agree to the extra 1000 dollars. Normally, had my parents paid the contractor, the advice would be to take the contractor to small claims court. But my parents have not paid any money, nor even a deposit! Contractor is now demanding 2500. He had a big fight with my parents in front of their house. They never signed his contract, but in email they agreed to the 1500 dollar work, not the 1000 extra stuff. What do they do? Two issues - shoddy work for the agreed 1500 dollar job, AND contractor added extra services that they didn't agree to TLDR: parents hired contractor who never picked up signed contract after estimate. They emailed contractors saying they didn't want additional asthetic work done as was mentioned on the estimate - they only wanted the basic work done, quoted at 1500. Crew comes and does both pieces including 1000 extra. Work is shoddy. Contractor yelling at them demanding 2500. Nothing has been paid
2020.08.28 17:41 DeathCIoudMy aunt(50) has actually gone crazy. Most of her family is a state away, what can we do?
CA - Crazy Aunt UH - Unfurtunate Husband Thelma - Oldest daughter of CA Daphne - Youngest Daughter of CA Me - deathcioud Clay - Probably a Nigerian Prince or something. So a little backstory. My CA used to be the sane one in the family. She went to school, had three amazing daughters, who are the best cousins I could ask for. Two are active in the Navy, one is the mother to my godchild. Anyway, over the past few months, my CA has been .... well going crazy. She's attacked her UH, knocking him out multiple times. Shes hit Daphne in the face, giving her a black eye and causing her to move out of her house. She's been on Paltalk, on camera rocking back and forth, yelling, screaming the works. She recently "Fell in love with" this guy on the internet, after abusing her husband.This guy is so amazing. He's a farmer in Pennsylvania, who owns 100 acres of cornfields. Filthy rich, and owns his own company. She talks about him all the time, even going on weird rants on facebook about him. (He doesnt have a facebook by the way. As a matter of fact, she doesn't have a picture of him, his "cell phone service" is bad so he cant call her often, and no one in her Paltalk group (Where she claims to have met him and talked with for a long time) have ever seen or heard of the guy. He also hasn't told her his last name. But he's rich, and will buy her a car, but doesnt have any money right now. So, I dont get on Facebook often. The one day I do, I see a large post about this Clay guy. I was confused about it, because that's not UH's name. I messaged her asking her whats going on (That thread has like 100 comments of people concerned for her health, because unbeknownst to me, this wasn't the first facebook rant about this strange man-gift from god she received. I message her asking her whats going on, and she calls me. Here's the transcript that I typed up as she was talking. CA: Thelma is living in her own fucked up world. It's really really bad. She (Thelma) proved how much of a selfish bitch she is. (No clue why she started by saying this, what an introduction to a phone call) CA: (mumbles) I called her that in a text too, a selfish fucking bitch. CA: But he (Clay) is my big daddy, he makes me happy happy happy happy. (She says this with a slight crescendo, the last happy sounding like a Barnie chant or some shit) Big clay gonna get you and your wife a house wherever you want! (talking like a child actually) Me: How'd you meet him? Her: Online (Paltalk) She starts babbling about a big black truck. (She actually does sound insane here) She doesn't have a vehicle but "Clay" tells her he will buy her one. CA: And he told me he can't wait to have me ride him on his tractor (Laughs like joker) Talks about doing him in the cornfield field and whatnot. CA: Look up Saint Elmo island... THAT is where I want him to take me for my birthday something something anchor. It's a thousand dollars a night! (Sounds insane as f) Now keep in mind, none of us have seen, or heard from this "Clay". The people she talks to on Paltalk all the time have never seen this guy either. Doesn't have a Facebook apparently, his phone doesn't have service all of the time. She then tells me this story CA: We get on Paltalk. CA: Daphne (the last daughter that lives with them) Comes with us every day in the room. its a music room, weed room we smoke a lot of weed. and uhm we turn our cameras on, and you can see whoever has their camera on, you can SEE them! You're not looking at a picture or something, this is a live camera. CA: This is how me and UH communicated when he worked. Well, Clay used to date my ex-friend. She's the reason why me and UH couldn't save our marriage because when she dated Clay, she fucked up his mind. She got him to the point where our friend, he was being mean to our friend. I didn't like him at this point because I didn't know him. (This story is useless to me, but you guys get to suffer too, I had to hear this over the phone) CA: These last 3 weeks I've been going through hell. Imma gives you an example of this mother fucker did. He (UH) spit in my face with Daphne watching him. Me: Why would he do that? CA: He was mad at us because we wouldn't let him smoke. (mumbles) Cuz he was mean to me (in the voice a child would have while tattling) CA: And then he has the nerve, THE NERVE. Daphne was yelling at UH for spitting in her face. I didn't do that he said. He went up to her stuck the bird finger in her face, and said you see this you can take it and shove it up to your ass, and you and Thelma can go live in your own little sick world. Daphne was so hurt. I fucking lost it and Knocked his ass out. Let me tell you another thing he did to Daphne. For context again, Daphne has denied every story she's been telling people and has since sought shelter at a friend's house. CA: One morning we get up... Daphne was about to leave, so she decided to smoke with us, but she didn't have much left. He finally wakes up at this point, and she goes to her car. He took off, mad bc we smoked without him. CA: Daphne comes back because she forgot the rest of her weed, asks wheres the weed. Its not in her jar. He took your weed and left! CA: What's wrong with this muddafukka? (Sounds like the FUCKING ACCUSER woman here. No lie I had to mute my phone to laugh) CA: If Daphne wouldn't be here he would have shot me dead. I would have been happy I was dead cuz I'm going meet God, I know I am cuz I've been in hell. HE BROUGHT ME HERE AND KEPT ME, HOSTAGE. blah blah blah. CA: Enough about that mother fucker. I found someone to love me, unconditionally. He IS real, I'm going to take a picture to show that he is real. But he's HOT, he works in the field all day long. He promised today I can show a picture of him to show that he's real. He's got the most huge dimples I've ever seen. Nose to chin that's how big they are. And I can't wait for everybody to see what my husband looks like. You know me, would I post something on facebook that isnt true? So she doesnt know his address, his last name, and the name of his huge company. lol I ask her real questions about him she starts talking about my mom and baby brother who both passed away, then she begins hyperventilating. She told her entire family that she believes trusts her that she will buy a house for them. CA: God has my back, and Clay by my side, so everything will be okay. Second call landlady and landlord called her they wanted to come to inspect the house and stuff Superintendant came and brought her a letter: She got fired because of what she posted on Facebook. Was excited about this because that means She's going meet Clay this week now, (laughing maniacally) This was two weeks ago. Spoiler alert, still have not seen or heard from "Clay". Daphne denies ever seeing him. CA just recently tried to go into a bank, and then caused a scene because Mark Zuckerberg promised to send her money. I was fed up by the second call, so I didn't really type it well. Sorry, its gonna be authentic. Anyway, she's obviously fell for a Zuckerberg scam, and no one believes this "Clay" guy is legit. She needs help. Thelma has tried wellness checks, and the cops said nothing was wrong. But there is something wrong, we're all worried about her, but she lives 8 hours away. What can we do? I have copies of her facebook posts, and have video recordings of her episodes as well. Today we found out that she won 10,000,000 in a Totally Legit™ Facebook lottery! (The scam she fell for and yelled at the bank I mentioned earlier) This is going beyond crazy at this point. EVERYONE on her facebook is telling her shes wrong, shes getting scammed but "NO ONE BELIEVES" that this Totally Legit™ Lottery is Totally Legit™
2020.08.28 15:00 DarthEquusThe History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899
In this brief period, circumcision rapidly transformed from an experimental procedure of antiquity into a nearly unquestioned cure-all for every ailment imaginable. Doctors also began to scrutinize the possible applications towards women as well. In reference to the promotion of genital cutting by men like Remondino, Hutchinson, Johnson, Freeman, Lehman, and others, Jonathan Cohen (2011) wrote: "one of the most fascinating stories of the institutionalization of medical male circumcision is the discursive use of the Jews as racial proof of the benefits of circumcision, with a complete ignorance of sociological factors."
1885: ~10% of the American male population is circumcised
1887 Lewis Sayre, after promoting preventative circumcision for almost 20 years, finally limited his circumcision advocacy to therapeutic circumcision only rather than "indiscriminate" circumcision. His idea of therapeutic circumcision did still mean overdiagnosing infantile phimosis, but this was still an enormous improvement from his previous influential recommendations of totally non-therapeutic, preventative circumcision. [On the deleterious results of a narrow prepuce and preputial adhesionsTrans. Ninth Internat. Med. Congress] 1887 M. A. Rust addressed circumcision in writing about the history of cultural mutilations:
"There is not a single tribe of savages on the face of the globe who do not disfigure parts of their bodies, and hardly a part of the body susceptible of disfigurement which has not been disfigured. This is not done in accordance with individual fancy, but in strict conformity to inexorable tribal rule. Ornamentation lies at the root of many, but not of all of these mutilations. A great number of them entail such an amount of suffering and torture that, in order to establish them, to enforce submission and co-operation, potencies awful and mysterious must have been at work, striking fear into every individual heart. Once established, the obligation became as automatic as the daily walks of an ant. Circumcision is the most ancient and widely spread mutilation in existence, and it is practiced in all the five parts of the world, though to the greatest extent in Asia, Africa, and among the savages of Australia. Of civilized nations we note about one hundred and thirty millions of Muhamedans, and about ten millions of Jews, and the Christians of Abyssinia. It was practiced in Mexico at the time of the conquest of Cortez, and, according to the accounts of modern travelers is still in use among Indian tribes in Nicaragua and on the Amazon. No wonder that the origin of a mutilation so barbarous, so repulsive, and, at the same time, so widely spread and so tenaciously adhered to should have so repeatedly formed an object of inquiry and speculation. Muhamed found circumcision already an ancient usage among many of the Arabian tribes; he took it up for reasons akin to those for which Paul dropped it. It had prevailed, since time immemorial, among the Abyssinians, when they embraced Christianity. Travelers who make inquiries among savage tribes generally obtain for answer that it is a tribal custom which has always been; they cannot conceive why other reasons should be demanded."
[Mutilations. Gaillard's Medical Journal v. 45.] 1887 Angel Money writes:
"There can be no doubt of [masturbation's] injurous effect, and of the proneness to practice it on the part of children with defective brains. Circumcision should always be practiced. It may be necessary to make the genitals so sore by blistering fluids that pain results from attempts to rub the parts."
[Treatment of Disease In Children, Philidelphia: P. Blakiston, 1887. p.421.] 1888 John Harvey Kellogg (yes, the cereal guy) promoted irrational fear of masturbation and "spermatorrhoea." For girls, he warned that masturbation caused breast atrophy, uterine cancer, and insanity. He recommended circumcision and other surgical punishments for both boys and girls to punish and discourage masturbation. He also wrote positively of cauterizing the clitoris with acid to alleviate masturbation in girls. It's notable and often forgotten that he was promoting cutting the genitals of older children rather than infants. He wrote positively of the Jewish practice but also noted its tendency to scar the meatus (meatal stenosis). He advanced the propaganda that ancient genital surgery had always been performed for health. He also advocated the use of male chastity belts. The next entry after circumcision is castration as if to imply it was also the next genital surgical option should circumcision fail to produce the intended result. Like Kellogg, Hutchinson had also suggested castration as the next and more extreme option to cure masturbation.
"In younger children, with whom moral considerations will have no particular weight, other devices may be used. Bandaging the parts has been practiced with success. Tying the hands is also successful in some cases; but this will not always succeed, for they will often contrive to continue the habit in other ways, as by working the limbs, or lying upon the abdomen. Covering the organs with a cage has been practiced with entire success. A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases. The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed." "In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control."
"The subject of the paper was itself suggested by a long and personal observation of the changes made in man by circumcision. From the individual observation of cases, it was but natural to wish to enlarge the scope of our observation and comparison; this naturally led to a study of the physical characteristics of the only race that could practically be used for the purpose. This race is the Jewish race. On carefully studying into the subject, I plainly saw that much of their longevity could consistently be ascribed to their more practical humanitarianism, in caring for their poor, their sick, as well as in their generous provision for their unfortunate aged people. The social fabric of the Jewish family is also more calculated to promote long life, as, strangely as it may seem, family veneration and family love and attachment are far more strong and practical among this people than among Christians, this sentiment not being even as strong in the Christian races as it is in the Chinese or Japanese. … Actual observations show them [the Jews] to be exempt from many diseases which affect other races; so that it is not only that they recover more promptly, but that they are not, as a class, subjected to the loss of time by illness, or to the consequent sufferings due to illness or disease, in anything like or like ratio with other people. There is also a less tendency to criminality, debauchery, and intemperance in the race; this, again, can in a measure be ascribed to their family influence, which even in our day has not lost that patriarchal influence which tinges the home or family life in the Old Testament. Crimes against the person or property committed by Jews are rare. They likewise do not figure in either police courts or penitentiary records; they are not inmates of our poor-houses, but, what is also singular, they are never accused of many silly crimes, such as indecent exposures, assaults on young girls…."
1890: ~15% of the American male population is circumcised
1890 Herbert Snow, a London surgeon published a 57-page book, one of the first intactivist volumes of the modern era. He called for "the abolition of an antiquated practice involving the infliction of very considerable suffering upon helpless infants; and sanctioned, on very questionable grounds, by men of eminent authority.
"No sane man who possessed the advantages of a sound and entire prepuce would willingly sacrifice it without just and sufficient cause being shown."
1890 The Orificial Surgical Society "was founded by Edwin Hartley Pratt, a surgeon at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The organization was largely concerned with orifices below the waist, and provided training for surgery of the prepuce, clitoris, and rectum, the latter organ being given special emphasis. It was obsessed with the idea that most diseases were caused by tightness of the preputial or anal sphincters. … By the 1920s many of the member physicians had their licenses revoked." —Wallerstein Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy 1980:38 — See also: Rutkow IM. Edwin Hartley Pratt and orificial surgery: unorthodox surgical practice in nineteenth century United States. Surgery. 1993. and Moments in surgical history: orificial surgery. Arch Surg. 2001. 1890 William D. Gentry declared that phimosis in men and uterine disorders in women caused insanity, blindness, deafness, dumbness, epilepsy, paralysis and criminal behavior adding that "the genitals of either male or female are the centres of the nervous system". [Nervous derangements produced by sexual irregularities in boys. Trans American Institute of Homeopathy. v.43.] 1890 Jonathan Hutchinson wrote that the foreskin encouraged masturbation and "adds to the difficulties of sexual continence" and can even cause insanity. For evidence of the latter point, he pointed to the case of an anonymous surgeon committed to an insane asylum for compulsive masturbation. Adult circumcision was useful, he wrote, for breaking men of the habit of masturbation, but early childhood circumcision was ideal in his opinion. In closing, he wrote: "Measures more radical than circumcision would, if public opinion permitted their adoption, be a true kindness to many patients of both sexes" referring to the difficulty of getting the general public to accept the idea of doctor's electing to sterilize patients without their consent. [On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Arch Surgery.] 1890 A review of Pogorelsky's Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews stated:
"As regards the predisposition to the acquirement of neuroses, the foreskin plays the same part in the male as the ovaries in the female." Sayre traced reflex paralysis and contracture of the lower extremeties; Erichsen, spasmodic diseases, to congenital phimosis. Further, hypochondriacal persons with inclination to commit suicide, individuals who suffer from uro-paraplegia, nervous tremor, chorea minor, neuralgia, hysteria, hallucinations and paresis have been cured by circumcision. Although circumcised persons contract gonorrhea more easily than uncircumcised, yet syphilis less often; the sexual desire is less in the former, hence crimes against morality are rarer."
Review of Pogorelsky M. Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews in The Medical Times. v.17. 1890.] 1891 Peter C. Remondino published a book of circumcision activism in which he vilified the foreskin at length as a malign influence and "moral outlaw." Repeating the false circumcision-prevents-masturbation meme, Remondino wrote, "the practice of [masturbation] can be asserted as being very rare among the children of circumcised races." According to Remondino excising foreskin would not only discourage boys from masturbating, but immunize them against tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, polio, idiocy, forgetfulness, impotence, unwanted erections, wet dreams and just about any medical problem you cared to mention.
"The prepuce seems to exercise a malign influence in the most distant and apparently unconnected manner: where, like some of the evil genii or sprites in the Arabian tales, it can reach from afar the object of its malignity, striking him down unawares in the most unaccountable manner; making him a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings, and tribulations; unfitting him for marriage or the cares of business; making him miserable and an object of continual scolding and punishment in childhood, through its worriments and nocturnal enuresis; later on, beginning to affect him with all kinds of physical distortions and ailments, nocturnal pollutions, and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail or even in a lunatic asylum. Man's whole life is subject to the capricious dispensations and whims of this Job's-comforts-dispensing enemy of man."
"In consequence of circumcision the epithelial covering of the glans becomes dry, hard, less liable to excoriation and inflammation, and less pervious to venereal viruses. The sensibility of the glans is diminished, but not sufficiently to interfere with the copulative function of the organ or to constitute an objection...It is well authenticated that the foreskin...is a fruitful cause of the habit of masturbation in children... I conclude that the foreskin is detrimental to health, and that circumcision is a wise measure of hygiene."
[The Hygiene of Circumcision. NYMJ. 1891;53:484-485.] 1892 Circumcision was not the only proposed cure for masturbation. Some physicians such as David Yellowlee detailed another version of punitive and supposedly therapeutic preputial infibulation:
"Some direct operative interference, which shall prevent masturbation and show him that he can live without it, may be of much service. The best form of such interference is so to fix the foreskin that erection becomes painful and erotic impulses very unwelcome. To accomplish this, the prepuce is drawn well forward, the left forefinger inserted within it down to the root of the glans, and a nickel‐plated safety‐pin, introduced from the outside through skin and mucous membrane, is passed horizontally for half an inch or so past the tip of the left finger, and then brought out through mucous membrane and skin so as to fasten outside. Another pin is similarly fixed on the opposite side of the prepuce. With the foreskin thus looped up any attempt at erection causes a painful dragging on the pins, and masturbation is effectually prevented. In about a week some ulceration of the mucous membrane will allow greater movement and with less pain, when the pins can, if needful, be introduced into a fresh place."
It should be pointed out that Yellowlee's advocacy of infibulation was not limited to the treatment of inmates in lunatic asylums, and was, in fact, directed at parents, whose duty, he declared, was to prevent their children from adopting ‘the secret vice’. [In Tuke DH ed. A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 2. London: J&A Churchill, 1892: 784 – 6] 1893 Mark J. Lehman claimed Jewish boys were healthier. He noted it was "an open question" whether tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, and "scrofula" were not "one and the same disease," and whether "such a simple measure as general circumcision" would not be the answer to all "insidious and filthy diseases." He called for immediate universal circumcision of all male infants. [A plea for circumcision. Medical Review.] 1893 An unnamed author for The Journal de Medicine de Paris provided a look into popular thought of the day on female circumcision (meaning only non-excisive incision here) writing:
"A certain Dr. Morris, of Boston, the land of Yankee notions, has discovered an ingenious method of making the most waspish and shrewish women models of gentleness and modesty. He proves by statistics that eighty out of one hundred American women of Aryan origin in New England have the gland of the clitoris adherent, in part or totality, to the prepuce. The result of these adherences is an imperfect development of the gland, and to this is due a weakness of sexual desire and various nervous perturbations. These troubles are dependent, in the first place, on an irritation of the terminal branches of the erectile nerves of the gland brought on by the adherences, and in the second place to irritation caused by the retention of smegma. This double irritation leads to masturbation, to the perversion of sexual desire, and finally to reflex neuroses.The preputial adherences of the clitoris are, according to Dr. Morris, the only and direct cause of the reflex neuroses from which thousands of New England women suffer, and he adds: "We can now understand how the most irritable young girl, the one who is most disagreeable and hysterical, may be made gentle, charming, and become endowed with a thousand feminine graces, by the simple rupture of the bands that bind down the clitoris [clitoral incision]." The therapeutic deduction is perfect, and we do not doubt that all husbands in New England who have shrewish wives will now employ Dr. Morris to break up these adhesions of the clitoris, and bring peace to many a suffering Boston household."
[Adherent Clitoris in all Shrewish Women. Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. Translated from J Med Paris.] 1894 Peter C. Remondino claimed circumcision would curb the "predisposition" of black men to rape white women. Remondino's proposal was supported by several medical journals including the Maryland Medical Journal and the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine).
"From our observations and experience in such cases, we feel fully warranted in suggesting the wholesale circumcision of the Negro race as an efficient remedy in preventing the predisposition to discriminate raping so inherent in that race. We have seen this act as a valuable preventive measure in cases where an inordinate and unreasoning as well as morbid carnal desire threatened physical shipwreck; if in such cases the morbid appetite has been removed or at least brought within manageable and natural bounds, we cannot see why it should not—at least in a certain beneficial degree—also affect the moral stamina of a race proverbial for the leathery consistency, inordinate redundancy, generous sebaceousness and general mental suggestiveness and hypnotizing influence of an unnecessary and rape, murder and lynching breeding prepuce."
[Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review vol. 4 p. 3.] 1894 Darby (2005) wrote: “eleven boys confined in a Kansas mental institute were castrated for persistent masturbation.” When the press was critical of this, "the Kansas Medical Journal defended the institute's action” writing “this abuse weakened the already imbecile mind and destroyed the body” (Darby, 2005). 1895 Charles E. Fisher, a homeopathic doctor, wrote:
"In all cases in which male children are suffering nerve tension, confirmed derangement of the digestive organs, restlessness, irritability, and other disturbances of the nervous system, even to chorea, convulsions, and paralysis, or where through nerve waste the nutritive facilities of the general system are below par and structural diseases are occurring circumcision should be considered as among the lines of treatment to be pursued." A like rule obtains with reference to female children. In general practice the sexual organs in both sexes should be carefully examined by the general practitioner in early infancy, and at various times throughout child-life, with reference to the correction of deformity or unnatural conditions that may be present. ...the clitoris is often firmly bound down by an adherent hood; numerous reflexes arising therefrom. It has become quite the rule the examine the sexual organs of male children at or soon after birth, but, on the other hand, it is equally the rule to neglect to examine girl babies. As children of the weaker sex grow their more delicate nervous systems begin to show the effect of genital irritations, and many a case of chorea, confirmed headache, nervous jactitations, paralytic weakness, unusual irritability, melancholia or other abnormal state of the nervous system long remains uncured because of the failure to make careful examination of the condition of the genitalia and relieve irritations and adhesions at this site."
[A Hand-Book On The Diseases of Children And Their Homeopathic Treatment. Chicago: Medical Century Co. 1895] 1895 Edgar J. Spratling began his article explaining that part of the great evil of masturbation was that it might lead to being sodomized in an insane asylum. He advocated tight circumcisions to prevent the skin from being able to move, a natural feature of the human penis which facilitates masturbation. If not tight circumcision, cutting the nerves to the penis could also be used to blunt the individual's sexuality, and he advocated that surgery as well, but it was a more delicate surgery compared to circumcision.
"In women the road to its cure is an endless and monotonous journey, for nothing short of ovariotomy will be found to deserve even the term palliative; clitoridectomy, anatomically and physiologically, could be but a failure, blistering [i.e., cauterization is] only [a] cruelty. Among men the case is not so hopeless, for there anatomy is partly in the operator's favor [meaning male erogenous sensitivity is easier to destroy]. Of the treatments we might speak of blistering the glans penis, but only to condemn it as an uncalled for cruelty; the possible beneficial effect is so transient, while the untoward effect is often so lasting upon the patient mentally in the way of a feeling of resentment, that it is doubtful if one could ever justify such a proceeding. Complete section of the dorsal nerves of the penis (as I have previously advocated) is a rational procedure, but rather too radical for constant routine practice. The cases require the greatest care in the selection for this operation, and even then with all due care one will generally have to encounter the most strenuous objections and later the bitterest reproach and condemnation from the patients and from their relatives—though the object sought may have been obtained [at the expense of causing penile numbness and impotence]. [In cases of masturbation] circumcision is undoubtedly the physicians' closest friend and ally. "To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. It is true, however, that the longer it takes to have an orgasm, the less frequently it will be attempted, consequently the greater the benefit gained. "The younger the patient operated upon the more pronounced the benefit, though occasionally we find patients who were circumcised before puberty that require a resection of the skin, as it has grown loose and pliant after that epoch."
[Masturbation in the Adult. Med Rec.] 1895 T. Ritchie Stone strongly advocated circumcision for all male infants in his pro-surgery review. [Circumcision. Maryland Med J.] 1896 An editorial in a scientific journal lists reasons for circumcision as everything from bed wetting to elephantitis.
"Local indications for circumcision: Hygienic, phimosis, paraphimosis, redundancy (where the prepuce more than covers the glans), adhesions, papillomata, ecaema (acute and chronic), oedema, chancre, chancroid, cicatrices, inflammatory thickening, elephantitis, naevus, epithelioma, gangrene, tuberculosis, prepupital calculi, hip-joint disease, hernia. Systematic indication: Onanism [masturbation], seminal emissions, enuresis [bed wetting], dysuria, retention, general nervousness, impotence, convulsions, hystero-epilepsy."
[Medical Record, Circumscisus, Medical Record, vol. 49 (1896): p.430.] 1897 S. G. A. Brown of Pennsylvania repeated the same Semitophillic sentiment as Remondino:
"The Jews, who perform this operation on the eighth day after birth, are, from actual observations, known to be exempt from many diseases which afflict other races. Their children are hardy, and grow up to manhood and womanhood strangers to disease, perfect in body, sound in mind, and with a morality above condemnation. It is rare that they figure in silly crimes, police or divorce courts. That an appendage like the prepuce which under various conditions, as phimosis, short frenum or preputial adhesions, is the leading factor in the production of enuresis, dysuria, impotence, calculi, cancer, syphilis, phthisis or various other reflex neuroses, can be considered as a natural physiological appendage, is absurd in the extreme. In order to render the rising generation healthy, mentally morally and physically, we must pay attention to this redundant tissue, and advise its early removal. Fully three-fourths of all male babies have abnormal prepuces."
[A Plea for Circumcision. J Orificial Surgery quoted in The Medical World] 1898 T. Scott McFarland of Missouri reported on the circumcision of a two-year-old girl with precocious puberty and anomalous symptoms of irritation. In closing he added that he had "circumcised as many girls as boys, and always with happy results." Note that circumcision meant prepucectomy for either sex until the 1980s. The more severe form of genital cutting more familiar to people today as female circumcision/FGM meaning clitoridectomy was then called "[clitoral] excision" or the oddly overgeneralized, "operative procedure". [Circumcision of girls. J Orificial Surgery.] 1898 Edwin H. Pratt wrote:
"The condition of the foreskin of boys has received more or less attention, at least since the days of Moses, who is reported to have inaugurated the practice of circumcision of the male portion of the human race. But the girls have been neglected. Without presuming to pose as their Moses, I do feel an irresistible impulse to cry out against the shameful neglect of the clitoris and its hood, because of the vast amount of sickness and suffering, which could be saved the gentler sex, if this important subject received proper attention and appreciation at the hands of the medical profession. All up-to-date doctors realize the importance of the proper condition of the foreskin in the male and of securing it during infancy. The foreskin must be completely loosened, if it is too long amputated and if it is too tight slit open, in order to avoid the dangers of infantile convulsions, of hip-joint disease, of kidney disease, of paralysis, of eczema universalis, of stammering, of dyspepsia, of pulmonary tuberculosis, of constipation, of locomotor ataxia, of rheumatism, of idiocy and insanity, and of lust and all its consequences. But the poor girls, who have an organ called the clitoris, anatomically corresponding to the penis of the male, with a hood corresponding to the foreskin of the male and just as sorely in need of [surgical] attention, and just as prolific of mischief when neglected as the corresponding parts of the male, have been permitted to suffer on in silence. The same list of diseases which have their start in nerve waste caused by a faulty foreskin in the male is duplicated by the female sex from identically the same cause, in addition to other troubles peculiar to the female organization from which, of course, the male are exempt, and yet it goes on almost entirely unrecognized. Chorea, so frequent in young girls, chlorosis, which comes a little later on, and hysteria, which is also a common affliction, in addition to the same diseases from which boys whose foreskin have been neglected are liable to suffer, have their organ almost invariably in faulty conditions of the hood of the clitoris. It is such a simple matter to secure a normal condition of the hood and its clitoris, and its neglect is fraught with so much and such serious mischief to the gentler sex, that the sin of omission which is being constantly and everywhere committed is painful to contemplate. Doctors are not easily educated out of their beaten tracks. So let both sexes have a start in life and be entirely freed from the sexual self consciousness which inevitably comes from impinged nerve fibres about the clitoris and its hood as well as at the glans penis and its foreskin. ... A vigorous sympathetic nervous system means health and long life. What surgical interest have we in this fact? It can be told in just one sentence. The weakness and the power of the sympathetic nerve lies at the orifices of the body. Surgery must keep these orifices properly smoothed and dilated."
"Clarence B. was addicted to the secret vise practiced among boys. I performed an orificial operation, consisting of circumcision... He needed the rightful punishment of cutting pains after his illicit pleasures."
[Report of a Few Cases of Circumcision. Journal of Orificial Surgery, vol. 7 (1898): pp.249-251.] 1898 Emmet L. Holt advocated for circumcision under the following reasoning:
"Circumcision should be done if phimosis exists, and even where it is not, the moral effect of the operation is sometimes of very great benefit."
[The Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood. New York: D. Appleton. 1897:696-698.] 1899 Denslow Lewis, a Chicago gynecologist, presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision (prepucectomy) at a meeting of the AMA in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful.” He treated 38 women with circumcision reporting “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.” [The Gynecologic consideration of the sexual act]
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